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Review quote The editors have assembled a collection of several important essays that tackle many aspects of peace and conflict and [the] complex dynamics of cooperation and competition within and outside the Central Asian states. The publication is a welcome volume for the field of Central Asian studies in particular and international relations in general. One set of chapters focuses on the intersection of politics and religion. Another explores energy security.
A third pictures geopolitical forces tugging at the region, and a fourth looks at some integrative forces, such as the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.
Islam, Oil, and Geopolitics : Elizabeth Van Wie Davis :
Through this one volume we can reflect on the broad significance of this region. America is trying to balance the conflicting pressures of containing terrorism and enhancing regional security, while pursuing a democratizing mission and seeking new energy sources.
- China Lays Down Gauntlet in Energy War: the geopolitics of oil, Central Asia and the United States;
- Rouben Azizian (Editor of Islam, Oil, and Geopolitics).
- See a Problem?.
Russia's neo-imperial aspirations are leading it toward a renewed role in Central Asia, whileChina views the region as a promising source of oil and gas and a potential source of instability. As each of these great powers jockeys for position in Central Asia, they find occasions for cooperation and competition. Neighboring states? Iran, Turkey,India, and Pakistan? Islam, Oil, and Geopolitics provides a balanced and sophisticated assessment of these complex factors, with insights from talented Central Asian, Russian, Chinese, Japanese and American scholars and practitioners.
The authors skillfully outline broad strategic factors in the regional equation, while recognizing the substantial political, economic and social differences among the five Central Asian states. Academics and policy-makers alike will pro -- Charles E. Ziegler, University of Louisville This volume brings together an impressive array of international experts on Central Asia to address security trends in this pivotal region of the world.
Russia's neo-imperial aspirations are leading it toward a renewed role in Central Asia, while China views the region as a promising source of oil and gas and a potential source of instability. Initial responses in the region ranged from support by Uzbekistan to some expressions of concern by Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan that diplomacy had not been given enough of a chance. Alleged incidents where civilians have been killed during U. The U.
The "main goal of the IMU is to topple the current government in Uzbekistan," it warned, linking the IMU to bombings and attacks on Uzbekistan in The IMU is being aided by Afghanistan's Taliban and by terrorist bin Laden, according to the State Department, and it stressed that the "United States supports the right of Uzbekistan to defend its sovereignty and territorial integrity from the violent actions of the IMU.
The designation made it illegal for U. It also permitted the United States to increase intelligence sharing and other security assistance to Uzbekistan. According to most observers, the President was stressing that Uzbekistan should actively support the United States in the Afghan operation.
Officials in Germany arrested several individuals on September 5, , on charges of planning explosions at the U. Reportedly, the suspects had received training at IMU and al Qaeda terrorist training camps in Pakistan. In August , the United States announced that it was freezing any U.
China reported that its military exercises with Kyrgyzstan in November were aimed at helping Kyrgyzstan to eliminate the group. According to the State Department's Country Reports on Terrorism , "radical extremist groups such as HT may also present a danger to the region. HT [is] an extremist political movement advocating the establishment of a borderless, theocratic Islamic state throughout the entire Muslim world The United States has no evidence that HT has committed any acts of international terrorism, but the group's radical anti-American and anti-Semitic ideology is sympathetic to acts of violence against the United States and its allies.
Nonetheless, U. The factsheet also urges Central Asian government to "prosecute their citizens for illegal acts, not for their beliefs. The United States and the Central Asian states signed defense cooperation accords prior to September 11, , that provided frameworks for aid and joint staff and working group contacts and facilitated enhanced cooperation after September 11, Uzbekistan provided a base for U. It also leased to the coalition IL transport airlift for forces and equipment. Kazakhstan provided overflight rights and expedited rail transhipment of supplies.
Turkmenistan permitted blanket overflight and refueling privileges for humanitarian flights in support of OEF. Tajikistan permitted use of its international airport in Dushanbe for U. While the former Bush Administration rejected the idea of permanent military bases in these states, Crouch stated in June that "for the foreseeable future, U.
According to a late November State Department fact sheet, the United States does not intend to establish permanent military bases in Central Asia but does seek long-term security ties and access to military facilities in the region for the foreseeable future to deter or defeat terrorist threats. The fact sheet also emphasizes that the U. In mid, tents at the Manas airbase reportedly were being replaced with metal buildings.
The OBC considered that there could be some possible merit in establishing cooperative security locations in the region but urged Congress to seek further inter-agency vetting of "what constitutes vital U. With encouragement from the U. At the signing, a NATO press release hailed Tajikistan's support to the coalition as "of key importance" to combating international terrorism. Many in Central Asia viewed these exercises as "sending a message" to Islamic extremists and others in Afghanistan, Iran, and elsewhere against fostering regional instability.
These include a U. The United States affirmed that "it would regard with grave concern any external threat" to Uzbekistan's security and would consult with Uzbekistan "on an urgent basis" regarding a response. The two states pledged to intensify military cooperation, including "re-equipping the Armed Forces" of Uzbekistan.
Similarly, then-Kyrgyz President Askar Akayev and then-President Bush issued a joint statement on September 23, , pledging to deepen the strategic partnership, including cooperation in counter-terrorism, and the United States highlighted its aid for Kyrgyzstan's border security and military capabilities.
It states that its peacetime strategy focuses on ties between the regional military forces and U.
Why Turkey is Authoritarian
In exchange, the United States provided security guarantees and agreed that terrorists belonging to the Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan IMU who were fighting alongside Taliban and Al Qaeda forces would be targeted. According to some reports, the problems in negotiating the U. Ganci airbase, in honor of a U. Besides these airbases, Uzbekistan also has provided a base for about German troops at Termez and a land corridor to Afghanistan for humanitarian aid via the Friendship Bridge at Termez.
Over French troops have used the Dushanbe airport in Tajikistan for refueling and humanitarian shipments. Kazakhstan has allowed overflight and transhipment rights, and U.
Turkmenistan, which has sought to remain neutral, allowed the use of its bases for refueling and humanitarian trans-shipments. On July 5, , the presidents of Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Tajikistan signed a declaration at an SCO summit that stated that "as large-scale military operations against terrorism have come to an end in Afghanistan, the SCO member states maintain that the relevant parties to the anti-terrorist coalition should set a deadline for the temporary use of However, after the United States and others interceded so that refugees who fled from Andijon to Kyrgyzstan could fly to Romania, Uzbekistan on July 29 demanded that the United States vacate K2 within six months.
Perhaps indicative of the reversal of U. Many K2 activities shifted to the Manas airbase in Kyrgyzstan. Some observers viewed the closure of K2 and souring U. Others suggested that U. With the closure of K2 and the cooling of U.
In a joint statement issued at the close of Nazarbayev's September U. Defense analyst Roger McDermott has warned that these apparently closer U. He has argued that the United States needs to match the rhetoric of partnership with increases in defense aid to Kazakhstan that are closely monitored to cut down on corruption within Kazakhstan's armed forces.